This page contains relevant information to assist those faced with an emergency situation in the Greater Wangetti Region. The information contained herein was current in 2023 and the treatment information was sourced primarily from St John Ambulance Australia, Australian Red Cross and Health Direct (Australian Government).
DISCLAIMER - The utmost care has gone into the making of this page. We believe the information is true and correct at the time of publishing. We cannot and will not, however, be held liable in any way for any injuries or deaths by any persons who have been treated using the information on this page. If you are unsure, please wait for the paramedics or a doctor.

Mobile Phone Reception
In the case of a serious emergency it is always prudent to call 000 and request the relevant emergency service. This is of course sound advice, but please bear in mind that mobile phone reception in and around Wangetti is patchy and predominantly only via Telstra. If you are out of range from the Wangetti Telstra tower, but are on higher ground and have line of sight to either Buchan's Point or Island Point, you should have reception on any of the 3 main carriers. There is an Optus tower above Turtle Cove but, due to the adjacent terrain, reception is localised. Usually there is no reception along the Cook Highway, between just south of Quaids Road and the South Wangetti Carpark. As you move westward into the hills, reception is extremely patchy. Wangetti Beach has reasonable reception at the north end, but becomes patchy the further south you go.
Telstra - is the only carrier that functions within the actual township of Wangetti. Heading north, it provides continuous service along the highway, from just south of Quaid's Rd to Oak Beach and beyond. Heading south on the highway, there is a dead area from just south of Quaid's Rd until you reach the Wangetti southern carpark. From there, reception is good through to Palm Cove and beyond. There is good reception from the Wangetti northern carpark, along the beach, until about 60% of the distance to the southern carpark. It then goes dead until about 200 mts north from the southern carpark. The reception is good from that point southwards. As you move west along Quaid's Rd, there is reception for the first 3 kms, then it becomes extremely patchy, until reception is restored as you approach Black Mountain Rd. From there reception is patchy but reasonable.
Optus - has no reception within the Wangetti township. On the highway, reception begins from just north of the Wangetti TelstraTower, and is reasonably good from there north. Heading south on the highway, reception begins again at Red Cliff Point, just south of the Wangetti southern carpark. From there it is reasonably good through to Palm Cove and beyond. There is reception at the Wangetti northern carpark, and this continues for about 60% of the beach, heading south. The remaining beach area and southern carpark has no reception. Heading west on Quaid's Rd, there is no real reception until you reach Black Mountain Rd. From there the reception is patchy.
Vodafone - offers similar reception to Optus, but is more patchy along the highway, both to the north and to the south. It has no real reception at all, as you move westwards.
If your phone is showing "Emergency Calls Only", that means you are within the Telstra network and you can call 000 in an emergency, no matter what carrier you are using.

Be Prepared
The absolute best way to handle an emergency is to prevent it from happening in the first place (awareness of potential dangers) and to have on hand some sort of first-aid kit, either in your vehicle or in your backpack. A reasonably good, basic first aid kit can be purchased for as little as $25 (St John First Aid Kit - Woolworths)
A Basic First Aid Kit should include the following:-
non-stick wound dressings
adhesive strips (e.g. Bandaids)
combine & eye pads
gauze swabs
alcohol & antiseptic swabs
triangular bandages
crepe bandages (including a purpose made snake bite bandage)
disposable hand towels
stainless steel scissors
blunt-nosed shears
saline solution
safety pins
plastic bags
stainless steel tweezers
thermo/shock blanket
notepad & pencil
disposable nitrile gloves
bite & itch relief gel
cold pack (disposable)
CPR protection mask
Additional products recommended are:-
antiseptic cream
analgesic tablets
allergy preparations
anti-nausea preparations
anti-diarrhoea preparations
sunscreen, sunburn-relief
ear ache drops
eye drops
cotton buds
finger stalls
medicine measuring cup
a blue asthma inhaler (if permitted)
Check the contents of your kit regularly, and ensure that:-
items have been cleaned
packets are properly sealed
items have not exceeded expiry dates
previously used items have been replaced

Emergency Categories
1/ Physical Trauma - this includes injury from car/motorcycle/boat/bicycle/hang-glider accident; falls from and/or onto hard objects, such as rocks; Crocodile or Shark attack; other wild animal attacks, such as Feral Pigs; injury from a sharp object, such as a spear, sharp tree branch, sharp rock/coral, glass or metal object; electrocution; burns and scalds.
2/ Bites And Stings - this includes snake, spider, scorpion and centipede bites; jellyfish stings; Stingray, Stonefish, Bullrout and Coneshell barb stings.
3/ Medical Emergencies - this includes heart attack; stroke; convulsions/seizures; fainting or collapse; cessation of breathing (drowning etc.); anaphylaxis; involuntary bleeding; low or high blood sugar; heat stroke; dehydration; exposure; severe headache; accidental poisoning/drug overdose.

In any emergency the first response is to follow DRSABCD
Ensure the area is safe for yourself, others and the casualty
Check for response - ask name - squeeze shoulders (Also look for any medical identifications, such as a necklace or a bracelet. This may provide a valuable clue to the cause of the situation)
No Response -> Call for help
Response -> Make comfortable, monitor response and check for injuries
Call 000 for an ambulance or ask someone else to make the call
Send for a defibrillator if available
Open mouth - check for foreign material
No Foreign Material -> Leave casualty in the position in which they were found. Open the airway by tilting head with chinlift (adult) or slight head tilt and chinlift (child).
Foreign Material In Mouth -> Place casualty in the recovery position with mouth slightly downward. Clear foreign material from airway with fingers. Once foreign material is removed, open the airway with a head tilt and chin lift (adult) and slight head tilt and chin lift (child).
Check for breathing. Look for movement of the upper abdomen or lower chest. Listen for the escape of air from the nose and mouth. Feel for movement of air at the mouth and nose.
Not breathing normally and no response -> Place on back and commence CPR and defibrillation.
Normal breathing -> Place in recovery position, monitor breathing and responsiveness.
-> Place the heel of hand on the lower half of the breastbone in centre of the chest with other hand on top of first. Either a one or two hand technique can be used for performing chest compressions in children.
-> Press down 1/3 of depth of chest and release, giving 30 compressions.
-> Open the casualty’s airway (head tilt and chin lift).
-> Pinch the soft part of the nose to seal and place your mouth over the casualty’s mouth.
-> Blow steadily into mouth for up to 1 second, watch for chest to rise and fall.
-> Give 2 breaths. Repeat 30 compressions to 2 breaths.
-> Aim for approximately 100-120 compressions per minute.
-> Continue CPR (30:2) until an ambulance arrives or casualty recovers.
Turn ON the defibrillator as soon as possible (if available) and follow voice prompts

CPR (Cardiopulmonary Resusitation)
How to perform CPR -
Instructions and diagrams
Instructional video

Recovery Position
How to place a patient in the Recovery Position

Emergency Treatments (Alphabetically listed)
Anaphylaxis -
A severe allergic reaction is the body’s immune system overreacting to a foreign substance. This is called Anaphylaxis and is potentially life-threatening.
Caused by:
Food: Nuts, cow’s milk, eggs, fish, shellfish and soy products.
Medications: Penicillin, Sulphur, antibiotics, Aspirin, Ibuprofen, Codeine or Morphine.
Venom: Bites from ticks, stings from bees, wasps and ants.
Signs and symptoms:
Difficult and/or noisy breathing.
Wheeze or persistent cough.
Swelling of the face and tongue.
Swelling/tightness of the throat.
Difficulty talking and/or “hoarse” voice.
Persistent dizziness or collapse.
Young children may become pale and floppy.
Abdominal pain and vomiting.
Hives, welts and body redness.
What to do:
Lay the casualty flat.
If breathing is difficult allow them to sit.
DO NOT allow them to stand or walk.
If the casualty is carrying an adrenaline autoinjector, use it immediately.
Ask the casualty if they need your help to use the adrenaline auto-injector.
Urgent medical aid. Call Triple Zero (000) for an ambulance immediately.
If required assist the casualty with an adrenaline autoinjector (EpiPen®).
Form a firm fist around the EpiPen® and pull off the BLUE SAFETY RELEASE.
Place ORANGE END against outer mid-thigh at a 90° angle (can be injected through clothing).
Push down hard until a click is heard or felt and hold in place for three (3) seconds.
Remove EpiPen® and dispose of it safely being careful of the needle.
Monitor the casualty, if no improvement, administer a second dose after 5 minutes.
Commence CPR and defibrillation at any time if the casualty is unconscious and is not breathing normally.

Asthma Attack -
An asthma attack is a sudden worsening of asthma symptoms triggered by the tightening of muscles around the airways.
Triggers may include:
Respiratory infections
Inhaled allergens, such as pollen
Changes in temperature and weather, especially cold air.
Environmental factors
Emotional factors, such as anxiety, stress or laughter
Certain medications e.g. aspirin
Chemicals and strong smells
Some foods and food preservatives.
Symptoms and signs of a severe asthma attack:
Dry, irritating, persistent cough
Gasping for breath
Unable to speak more than one or two words per breath
Blue discolouration around the lips
Pale and sweaty skin
Symptoms rapidly getting worse or using reliever more than every two hours.
What to do:
Conscious casualty -
Sit the casualty comfortably upright.
Be calm and reassuring and don’t leave the casualty alone.
Help the casualty to take four (4) puffs from their inhaler following their Asthma Action Plan (if they have one).
Wait four (4) minutes - if the casualty still cannot breathe normally, give four (4) more puffs in the same way.
If the casualty gets little or no relief from the inhaler, call Triple Zero (000) for an ambulance.
Keep giving four (4) puffs every four (4) minutes until medical aid arrives.
How to give Asthma medication:
With a spacer -
Assemble spacer.
Remove puffer cap and shake well
Insert puffer upright into spacer
Place mouthpiece between teeth and seal lips around it
Press once firmly on puffer to fire one (1) puff into spacer
Take four (4) breaths in and out of spacer
Repeat one (1) puff at a time until four (4) puffs taken
Remember to shake the puffer before each puff.
Without a spacer -
Remove puffer cap and shake well
Breathe out away from puffer
Place mouthpiece between teeth and seal lips around it
Press once firmly on puffer while breathing in slowly & deeply
Slip puffer out of mouth
Hold breath for four (4) seconds or as long as comfortable
Breathe out slowly away from puffer
Repeat one (1) puff at a time until four (4) puffs taken
Remember to shake the puffer before each puff.
Unconscious casualty -
If CPR is required it may be more difficult to get a breath into the casualty’s lungs

Blue-Ringed Octopus Bites And Cone Shell Stings (See further below for other "Marine Stings") -
The Greater Blue Ringed Octopus (Hapalochlaena lunulata) is commonly found in shallow tropical to sub-tropical waters, and if handled may inflict a potentially fatal bite. This may not be painful, as venom is not always injected.
The Cone Shell (Conus sp,) is mainly found in tropical waters; envenomation happens when they are handled or stepped on and they fire a dart-like barb which delivers venom.
Although different, venoms from both these creatures can cause paralysis and death from respiratory failure within 30 minutes.
Please see the "Dangerous Fauna" page for details on these very dangerous marine creatures.
Signs and symptoms:
A painless bite with a spot of blood visible
Numbness to lips and tongue, muscle weakness of respiration which can stop the casualties breathing
Caused by:
Handling the creature
Accidentally standing on the creature
What to do:
Urgent medical aid. Call 000 for an ambulance
Calm casualty and keep them still
If the bite is on a limb apply a firm broad crepe or elasticised roller bandage starting just above the fingers or toes, and moving upwards on the bitten limb as far as can be reached and immobilise the limb with a splint
Monitor casualty closely for signs of adverse reactions or deterioration
Prepare to perform cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) if necessary

Burns And Scalds -
Burns and scalds are damage to the skin caused by heat. A burn is caused by dry heat and a scald is caused by something wet and hot. Burns can also affect the respiratory system and the eyes.
Caused by:
Heat (thermal)
Fire or radiant heat such as an electric cooker
Hot liquid and steam
Radiation from the sun
Chemicals - corrosive substances
Friction, such as a rope burn.
Signs and symptoms:
Superficial burn -
Skin is red and painful, may blister and swell.
Deep burn -
Skin is white, dark red or charred
No pain where nerve endings have been destroyed
Usually surrounded by superficial burns.
What to do:
If clothing is on fire: STOP-DROP-ROLL + Stop the casualty from moving around. + Drop the casualty to the ground and wrap in a blanket or similar. + Roll the casualty along the ground until flames are smothered.
Assess the adequacy of the casualty’s airway and breathing.
Cool the burnt area with copious amounts of cool (fresh) water for up to twenty (20) minutes.
Remove any clothing and jewellery from affected area unless stuck to the burn.
Cover burnt area with a light non-stick dressing or clean, dry non-fluffy material.
Rest and reassure the casualty and check for shock.
Call Triple Zero (000) if: + Burns involving airway, hands, feet, face or genitals. + Deep burn. + Superficial burn larger than twenty (20) cent piece on an adult or ten (10) cent piece on a child. + If in any doubt of what to do.
Do not -
Peel off clothing that is stuck to the skin
Use ice or iced water to cool a burn
Apply lotions, ointments or creams
Break blisters

Choking Adult or Child (Over 1 year old) -
Choking is severe difficulty when breathing due to a mild or severe obstruction of the airway due to a foreign body.
Caused by:
Airway partially or completely blocked by food
Airway partially or completely blocked by small objects or foreign materials
Eating too quickly
Not chewing food sufficiently.
Signs and symptoms:
Clutching the throat
Coughing, wheezing or gagging
Having difficulty breathing, unable to breathe, coughing while speaking or swallowing
Trying to cry but making strange or no sounds at all
Making whistling or “crowing” sounds
Face, neck, lips, ears or fingernails turning blue
Collapsing or becoming unconscious.
What to do:
Encourage the casualty to relax, breathe deeply and encourage coughing to remove object and observe for any deterioration.
If coughing is unsuccessful in removing the object, call Triple Zero (000) for an ambulance.
If the casualty is conscious -
Position the casualty leaning forward with their head and chest low and give up to five (5) sharp back blows between the shoulder blades with the heel of one hand.
Visually check after each back blow to see if the obstruction has been cleared.
If unsuccessful, give up to five (5) chest thrusts: + Use the heel of the hand on the breastbone. + Place the other hand flat between the shoulder blades to support the casualty and deliver up to five (5) chest thrusts. Chest thrusts are similar to chest compressions but sharper and delivered at a slower rate. + Visually check to see if the obstruction has cleared after each thrust.
If the obstruction does not clear, continue alternating with five (5) back blows and five (5) chest thrusts until medical aid arrives.
If the casualty becomes unconscious and is not breathing normally -
Commence CPR and defibrillation
Call Triple Zero (000) for an ambulance

Cold Induced Condition -
Cold-induced conditions occur when the body’s core temperature drops below 35ºC. The body’s natural reaction is to prevent body heat escaping and does this by shutting down blood vessels in the skin.
Caused by:
Exposure to cold, wet, or windy conditions
Immersion/submersion in cold water
Trauma, immobility and burns
Severe infections
Signs and symptoms:
Feeling cold, shivering
Clumsiness and slurred speech
Apathy and irrational behaviour
When body temperature drops very low:
Shivering usually ceases
Pulse may be difficult to find
Heart rate may slow
Level of consciousness continues to decline
Cardiac arrest may occur
What to do:
Urgent medical aid. Call 000 for an ambulance
Move the casualty to a warm, dry place
Protect the casualty and yourself from wind, rain, sleet, cold or wet ground
Help the casualty to lie down in a comfortable position
Handle the casualty as gently as possible and avoid excess activity or movement
Remove any wet clothing
To prevent further heat loss: + Use an emergency blanket, or plastic wrap if available and place as close to the skin as possible, then apply blankets or other clothing to provide better insulation and minimise further heat loss
Aim to stop the temperature dropping any lower rather than attempt rapid rewarming: + DO NOT use radiant heat such as fire or electric heater; and + DO NOT rub affected areas
If a warm drink/hot drink is provided: + Encourage the casualty to hold the cup to promote warming, and only take small sips; do not allow the casualty to consume rapidly or drink large amounts even when at a drinkable temperature. + A warm drink may not improve the situation in the short term. + They may eat if they want to. + Try to avoid caffeine if at all possible (hot chocolate is preferable). + Avoid alcohol
CPR considerations for those with SEVERE hypothermia who are unconscious and not breathing normally: + Where it is not possible to start CPR (for example if initially moving the person to a safer location), rescuers may consider delaying the onset of CPR for up to 10 minutes. + Only where it is not possible to maintain the continuity of CPR (for example during transport), performing periods of at least 5 minutes of CPR with periods of no more than 5 minutes without CPR. Uninterrupted CPR should be resumed as soon as feasible

Diabetic Emergency -
Diabetes is a condition where the body cannot maintain healthy levels of glucose, resulting in too much glucose in the blood. Glucose is a form of sugar which is the main source of energy for our bodies. Diabetic emergencies are when blood sugar levels become either too high or too low.
Caused by:
Low blood glucose (Hypoglycaemia) - low blood glucose
High blood glucose (Hyperglycaemia) - high blood glucose
Signs and symptoms:
Low blood glucose -
Pale, sweaty
Weak or shaky
May appear confused, irritable or aggressive
High blood glucose -
Excessive thirst
Frequent urination
Hot, dry skin
Feeling tired, blurred vision
Fruity sweet smell of acetone on the breath
What to do:
Conscious casualty -
Low blood glucose (hypoglycaemia) -
Help casualty into a comfortable position and reassure them
Give sugar such as glucose tablets, jellybeans or a sweet drink (such as a soft drink or cordial)
DO NOT give diet soft drinks or sugar-free cordials
If the person is able to follow simple commands and swallow safely, administer 15-20 grams glucose tablets (4 - 5 x 4 gram glucose tablets)
If symptoms or signs persist after 10 to15 minutes, and the person is still able to follow simple commands and swallow safely, administer a further 4 x 4g glucose
Follow up with a sandwich or other food
If there is no improvement call Triple Zero (000) for an ambulance
High blood glucose (hyperglycaemia) -
Follow Diabetes Management Plan
If the person has no management plan, seek medical assistance
Unconscious casualty -
Call 000 for an ambulance
Place the casualty into the recovery position if unconscious and not breathing normally
Give nothing by mouth

Dislocation -
A dislocation occurs when one or more bones are displaced at a joint, this is most often at the shoulders, elbow, kneecap or fingers.
Caused by:
A sudden impact on the joint
Forceful muscle contraction
Signs and symptoms:
Pain at or near the site of injury
Difficult or impossible to move the joint
Loss of power
Deformity or abnormal movement
Discolouration and bruising
What to do:
Assist the casualty to sit or lie down in a comfortable position and reassure
DO NOT attempt to put joint back into position
If the injury is to a limb: + Check blood flow - if absent move limb gently to try and restore it. + Call Triple Zero (000) for an ambulance. + Apply icepacks if possible, directly over the joint. + Rest and support the limb with padding and bandages
Shoulder: + Support the casualties arm in position of least discomfort
Wrist: + Apply a sling in a position of comfort

Electric Shock/Lightning Strike -
An electric shock occurs when a person comes into contact with an electrical energy source. Electrical energy flows through a portion of the body causing a shock. Exposure to electrical energy may result in a life-threatening situation as there may be damage to internal organs.
Caused by:
Electricity (either high voltage or prolonged current) passing through the body
Lightning strike
Signs and symptoms:
Sudden collapse after touching anything electrical
Burns, particularly entry and exit burns where the electricity entered and left the body which may be deep
Not breathing normally
A weak, erratic pulse or no pulse at all
Cardiac arrest
What to do:
Check for danger to yourself and bystanders
Switch off the power if possible
If safe to do so, remove the casualty from the electrical supply without directly touching them
Use non-conductive, dry materials, for example, a dry wooden broom handle
Cool any burnt areas with copious amounts of cool water for up to 20 minutes
Remove any clothing and jewellery from the affected area unless stuck to the burn
Cover burnt area with a light non-stick dressing or clean, dry non-fluffy material
Reassure the casualty
Always seek medical aid immediately for electrical burns
Call 000 for an ambulance
Downed power lines -
When calling 000, advise that there are downed cables
Phone Ergon Energy on 13 22 96 to report a fallen powerline and to make the area safe
Remain at least 8 metres from any cable and do not approach until advised that it is safe to do so
DO NOT attempt to remove the cable
If a vehicle is being touched by a high voltage cable, DO NOT go near the vehicle or try to remove the casualty from the vehicle
Advise the casualty not to move

Eye Injuries -
The eyes are the most sensitive and delicate organs in the body and are easily injured. An eye injury is a trauma or damage to the eye caused by a direct blow to the eye.
Caused by:
Impact with objects, such as a fist, ball, stones or tree branches
Small foreign objects, such as dirt, slivers of wood/metal or sand
Chemicals, such as acid, caustic soda, lime
Flames, flash burns, smoke or lasers
Signs and symptoms:
Photophobia - abnormal visual intolerance to light
Watering or bleeding
Pupil distortion, impaired vision
What to do:
Wash hands thoroughly and wear gloves if available
DO NOT - Touch the eyeball or any contact lens; allow the casualty to rub their eye; try to remove any object which is penetrating the eye; apply pressure when bandaging the eye.
Minor injury -
Wash out the eye gently with water or normal saline, from the corner closest to the nose outwards
If unsuccessful, pad eye and seek medical aid
Major injury -
DO NOT remove any embedded object.
Lay casualty flat on their back and reassure
If a penetrating eye injury - carefully place pads around the object and bandage gently in place
DO NOT place pressure on the eye.
Pad the head on each side with blankets/towels to stop the casualty from moving their head
Reassure casualty and ask them to keep their head as still as possible, as they will be anxious
Urgent medical aid. Call 000 for an ambulance

Febrile Convulsions -
A Febrile Convulsion is a fit or a seizure that occurs in children aged 6 months to 5 years. Convulsions in infants and children are quite common and usually brief, lasting no more than 5 minutes.
Caused by:
A rapid rise in body temperature to even 1.5ºC above the norm (37.5ºC) can cause convulsions
Other conditions
Signs and symptoms:
Fever (can be as low as 38.5°C)
Muscle stiffening
Twitching or limb jerking
Eyes rolling upwards
Blue tinge to face and lips
What to do:
During convulsion -
Place the child/infant on their side
DO NOT restrain the child/infant.
Remove child’s excess clothing or wrapping to cool them down - DO NOT cool by sponging or bathing
After convulsion -
Place infant/child into the recovery position if unconscious and breathing
Rest and reassure
Monitor airway and breathing, and keep cool
Seek medical aid If the casualty’s temperature rises again or another seizure follows - call 000 for an ambulance

Fractures (Broken Bones) -
A fracture is a broken bone. It can be difficult to tell whether the injury is a fracture, dislocation, sprain or strain. If in doubt, always treat as a fracture.
Caused by:
Direct force - at site of impact
Indirect forces e.g. fall on feet and break spinal bone
Signs and symptoms:
Pain at or near the site of the injury
Difficult or impossible normal movement
Loss of function
Deformity or abnormal mobility
Tenderness and swelling
Discolouration and bruising
Broken bone penetrating skin and bleeding
Types of Fractures:
Closed - Bone is broken with skin intact
Open - Broken bone protrudes through skin or there is a wound
Complicated - Associated injury to a major nerve, blood vessel, or vital organ(s)
What to do:
Control any bleeding and cover any wounds
Rest and reassure, ask the casualty to remain still
Immobilise the fracture in most comfortable position: DO NOT attempt to force a fracture back into place
Use broad bandages (where possible) to immobilise the fracture
Place a padded splint along the injured limb then bandage above and below the fracture site leaving a 5 cm gap either side of the fracture to prevent movement
DO NOT bandage over the fracture.
The casualty may be able to support the fracture themselves
Check that bandages are not too tight or too loose and every 15 minutes watch for signs of loss of circulation to hands or feet
Seek medical aid or call 000 for an ambulance if required

Head Injuries -
Head injuries are the result of trauma to the skull, scalp or brain. Injuries to the head are potentially dangerous and always require medical attention.
Caused by:
Skull fracture from direct force e.g. blow to the head or indirect force e.g. a fall from height
Concussion - altered state of consciousness
Compression - excess pressure on part of the brain
Signs and symptoms:
Change in conscious level
Headache, nausea, vomiting
Loss of memory
Altered or abnormal responses to commands or touch, such as irritability, confusion
Twitching, noisy breathing
Wounds to the scalp or face
Blood or fluid from the ear
Blurred vision
What to do:
Conscious casualty -
Rest and reassure the casualty
If NO suspected neck or spinal injury, place casualty in a comfortable position with head and shoulders slightly raised
If neck or spinal injuries are suspected, protect the neck whilst maintaining a clear airway, keep the casualty flat and support the head on either side to stop movement; improvise using rolled towels, blankets or clothing
Observe for any changes in signs, symptoms and level of consciousness
Urgent medical aid. Call 000 for an ambulance
Unconscious casualty -
Urgent medical aid. Call 000 for an ambulance
Place the casualty into the recovery position being careful to support the casualty’s head and neck in neutral alignment during movement to avoid any twisting action
If any blood or fluid is coming from the ear, place injured side down to allow the fluid to drain, place a clean pad between ear and ground and observe the amount draining
Monitor for any changes in signs, symptoms and level of consciousness and ensure the airway is kept clear and open
Control any bleeding, but do not apply direct pressure to the skull

Heart Attack -
A heart attack is a pain caused by a blockage of an artery that supplies blood to the heart and causes damage or death of the heart muscle.
Caused by:
Narrowing of the arteries
A diet high in saturated fats
High blood pressure
Signs and symptoms:
Pain in the chest may be: + Tight, gripping or squeezing + Mild to severe + Felt in the centre of the chest, shoulders, back, neck or jaw
Dizzy, lightheaded
Feel sick or may vomit
Pale, cold, clammy skin
May collapse and suffer a cardiac arrest
What to do:
Conscious casualty -
Locate the nearest defibrillator and keep it on standby
Advise the casualty to immediately sit down to rest and reassure them
If the casualty has been prescribed medication such as a tablet or oral spray for angina, assist them to take it as they have been directed
If symptoms last for 10 minutes or become worse quickly or are severe, call 000 for an ambulance immediately
Give 300mg (one tablet) of aspirin with water
DO NOT give aspirin to those allergic to it or if their doctor has advised them against taking aspirin
Stay with the casualty and monitor consciousness and vital signs
Be prepared to give CPR and administer defibrillation if symptoms worsen
Unconscious casualty -
Locate the nearest defibrillator and keep it on standby
Place casualty in recovery position
Urgent medical aid. Call 000 for an ambulance
Stay with the casualty and monitor breathing
Be prepared to give CPR and administer defibrillation if symptoms worsen

Heat Induced Condition -
Heat-induced conditions occur when the body’s core temperature is elevated. This is known as Hyperthermia.
Caused by:
Excessive heat absorption from a hot environment
Excessive heat production from metabolic activity
Failure of the body’s cooling mechanisms
An alteration in the body’s set temperature
Signs and symptoms:
Inability to continue the activity
High body temperature
Dizziness and faintness
Nausea, vomiting or diarrhoea
Pale skin and other signs of shock
Dry skin
Poor muscle control or weakness
Decreasing levels of consciousness
Confusion or seizures
What to do:
Cooling management -
Lie the person in a cool environment or in the shade
Loosen and remove excessive clothing
Send for an ambulance if not improving quickly
While waiting for professional assistance for individuals over 5 years of age -
Immerse (i.e. whole-body from the neck down) in cold water (a bath if possible, as cold as possible) for 15 minutes
If this is not available, a combination of the following methods should be used -
Wet the person with cold or cool water, under a shower if safe, or with a hose or other water source
Apply ice packs (groin, armpits, facial cheeks, palms and soles)
Repeatedly moisten the skin with a moist cloth or water spray
Fan continuously
While waiting for professional assistance for children 5 years of age and under -
Cool in a tepid (lukewarm) bath sponging frequently if bath available, or -
Repeatedly moisten the skin with a moist cloth or atomizer spray
Fan continuously
Hydration Management -
Give cool or cold water to drink if fully conscious and able to swallow

Insect Bites And Stings -
Most insect bites and stings result in a localised itch and swelling that settles within a few days. Severe allergic reactions (anaphylaxis) from insects are usually due to bees, wasps or one of several ant species.
Caused by:
Bites or stings from an insect (bee, wasp etc.) or small arachnid (tick)
Signs and symptoms:
Pain at the site (sometimes extreme)
Swelling and redness
Muscle weakness (tick bite)
Difficulty in breathing and swallowing
Itchy and painful blisters
What to do:
Bee/wasp sting - remove the sting by scraping sideways with fingernail or sharp object
Tick bite - if any signs of allergic reaction or casualty has a known allergy - DO NOT remove the tick
If any signs of allergic reaction or casualty has a known allergy - the tick must be killed where it is rather than removed, if you have the appropriate equipment to do so. Use an ether-containing spray to kill the tick, or TeaTree Oil or Sodium Bicarbonate to encourage it to drop off. This should be performed in a safe place with medical aid
Apply a cold pack directly over the bite site to relieve pain
Monitor casualty and seek medical aid if necessary
If severe allergic reaction, call 000 for an ambulance
If the casualty is carrying their own adrenaline auto-injector (EpiPen®) it should be given immediately

Jellyfish Stings (Tropical) -
The Box Jellyfish (Chironex fleckeri) and the Irukandji Jellyfish (Malo kingi and Carukia barnesi) are found in tropical waters that range from Geraldton, across the north, to Agnes Waters.
The Box Jellyfish are large, cube-shaped and have tentacles (up to 3m long) draping from the body which produce very potent venom. The stings from these are painful and can be fatal to humans
The Irukandji are small jellyfish and at times too small to be seen. The sting can be minor but can cause severe generalised pain and rarely death.
Please see the "Dangerous Fauna" page for details on these highly dangerous jellyfish.
Caused by:
Contact with jellyfish tentacles
Signs and symptoms:
Pain at the site (sometimes extreme)
Respiratory and cardiac arrest sometimes within minutes (Box Jellyfish)
Severe pain (back and abdomen)
Feeling of impending doom (Irukandji)
What to do:
Remove casualty from the water
Urgent medical aid. Call 000 for an ambulance
Calm casualty
Flood stung area with vinegar for at least 30 seconds
If vinegar is unavailable, flick tentacles off using a stick or gloved fingers and rinse with seawater
DO NOT use freshwater, this will cause further stinging cell discharge
Apply a cold pack
Rest and reassure, monitor vital signs and consciousness until medical aid arrives
Give CPR if necessary

Marine Stings (See further above for "Blue-Ringed Octopus Bites And Cone Snail Stings") -
Creatures such as the Striped Catfish (Plotosus lineatus), Stonefish (Synanceia sp), Bullrout (Notesthes robusta), Lionfish (Pterois sp.) and Crown-Of-Thorns Starfish (Acanthaster planci) can sting (penetrate) the skin via spines or barbs, which contain toxic material. Stingrays have a whip-like tail which releases venom into the wound as it penetrates the skin. Many of these creatures can cause death.
Please see the "Dangerous Fauna" page for details of these dangerous marine creatures.
Caused by:
Spines or barbs penetrating the skin
Signs and symptoms:
Immediate pain usually lasting 30 minutes
Redness on the skin
Muscle pain
Nausea and vomiting
Bleeding from the wound
Breathing difficulties
Cardiac arrest
What to do:
Catfish, Stonefish, Bullrout, LionFish, Crown-Of-Thorns Starfish -
Urgent medical aid. Call 000 for an ambulance
Rest and reassure the casualty
If the wound is on a limb, carefully remove any remaining spines or barbs. Clean visible foreign material from the wound. If possible place the stung area in hot water (no hotter than the first aider can tolerate)
Stingray -
Urgent medical aid. Call 000 for an ambulance
Rest and reassure the casualty
Stop any severe bleeding before placing stung part in hot water (no hotter than the first aider can tolerate)
DO NOT remove the embedded stingray spines especially from an injury to the chest, abdomen, neck, head, groin, or bone

Poisoning -
Poisoning is a process of inhalation, ingestion, absorption, or injection of a poisonous substance.
Poisoning may be accidental or intentional and can occur from many different forms such as chemicals, alcohol, drugs, common plants, household items.
Please see the "Dangerous Flora" page for details of poisonous plants in the Greater Wangetti Region.
Caused by:
Toxic fumes
Toxic substances
Bites and stings
Signs and symptoms:
Confusion, drowsiness, delirium, seizures, unconsciousness
Burns to skin, lips and throat
Irritation to eyes and skin
Respiratory distress, such as slow breathing or airway blockage
Affected heart function
Abdominal pain, nausea/vomiting, diarrhoea
Blurred vision and headache
What to do:
Urgent medical aid is required. Call 000 for an ambulance
Call Poisons Information 13 11 26 and/or follow instructions on any containers
Send any vomit, containers, or notes with the casualty to the hospital
Conscious casualty -
Listen to the casualty and give reassurance
Find out what sort of poison is involved and keep any containers for the medical aid to see
DO NOT induce vomiting or give anything to eat or drink
Wash any corrosive substance off the mouth and face with water, or wipe off
Unconscious casualty -
Place the casualty in the recovery position if unconscious and breathing and continue to check their airway and breathing regularly
Inhaled Poisons -
Move casualty and yourself to fresh air
Loosen tight clothing
Absorbed Poisons -
Protect yourself (if possible) use protective clothing such as gloves, goggles, and so on
Wash the substance off immediately
Ask the casualty to remove any contaminated clothing
Flush the casualty’s skin with running water
Wash gently with soap and water and rinse well
Injected -
Follow DRSABCD - avoid needle stick injuries to yourself and casualty
Treat any other signs and symptoms. Send any empty syringes, bottles, and vials with the casualty to the hospital



Seizures And Epilepsy -
A seizure is a sudden surge of electrical activity in the brain. Seizures may vary from muscle jerks through to severe and prolonged convulsions. Epilepsy is a neurological disorder which triggers recurrent and unprovoked seizures. Not all seizures are epilepsy, but all require first aid.
Caused by:
Head injury or high fever
Brain tumour or stroke
Poisoning or drug overdose
Serious infection or lack of oxygen
Signs and symptoms:
Sudden spasm of muscles producing stiffness or rhythmic jerking movements. If standing, the casualty will fall which may result in injury
Suddenly cries out
Shallow breathing or breathing may temporarily stop, leading to pale, blue-tinged lips and face
Excessive saliva (frothing) from the mouth
Changes in conscious state from being fully alert to confused, drowsy or loss of consciousness
What to do:
During a seizure -
Follow DRSABCD and follow the casualty’s seizure management plan, if there is one in place
DO NOT - Restrain the casualty or restrict movement. Put anything in the casualty’s mouth. Move the casualty, unless in danger
Protect casualty from environment: move furniture, cushion head and shoulders
Ensure the airway is maintained
Follow the casualty’s Seizure Management Plan if in place
Record the duration of the seizure
After a seizure -
Place casualty into Recovery Position if unconscious and breathing normally, ensure that the airway is clear and open
Manage any injuries. Rest and reassure
Seek medical aid
DO NOT disturb if casualty falls asleep, but continue to monitor breathing and response
Call 000 for an ambulance if -
First ever seizure
The seizure continues for more than 5 minutes or another seizure quickly follows
The casualty has been injured, is a diabetic or is pregnant
The seizure occurs in water




Severe Bleeding -
Severe bleeding is an excessive amount of blood loss. Even a small injury can result in severe external bleeding, depending on where it is on the body.
Caused by:
Anything that cuts or damages a blood vessel (including Crocodile or Shark attack)
Injury to a blood vessel
Amputation of a body part
Signs and symptoms:
Visible blood loss, oozing, flowing or spurting
Feeling faint or dizzy
Looking pale
Progressive loss of consciousness
What to do:
IMPORTANT wear gloves to prevent infection, if possible
Conscious casualty -
Reassure and lie the casualty down and remove or cut their clothing to expose the wound
Apply direct pressure over and around the wound using a pad or your hands. If the injury is to a major artery, PUSH HARD, DON'T STOP
Instruct the casualty to do this if possible
Squeeze the wound edges together if possible
Raise and support the injured part above the level of the casualty’s heart
Handle gently if you suspect a broken bone
Apply a pad over the wound and secure by bandaging over the wound
If blood oozes through the original bandage do not remove it
Place another pad and bandage over the top of the original one
Monitor bleeding and check every 15 minutes that the bandages are not too tight and that there is circulation below the wound
Urgent medical aid. Call 000 for an ambulance
DO NOT give the casualty anything to eat or drink
Unconscious casualty -
Follow DRSABCD and follow the casualty’s seizure management plan, if there is one in place
Control bleeding as for a conscious casualty
Urgent medical aid. Call 000 for an ambulance

Shock -
Shock is a collapse of the circulatory system which results in insufficient oxygen reaching the vital organs and tissues. Shock can be life-threatening.
Caused by:
Heart attack
Vomiting and diarrhoea
Pain or trauma
Major or multiple fractures
Allergic reactions
Severe sweating and dehydration
Signs and symptoms:
Weak, rapid pulse
Feeling cold, shivering, chills or clammy skin
Rapid breathing
Faintness, dizziness, nausea
Cool, sweaty skin that may appear pale or discoloured
What to do:
Conscious casualty -
Lie the casualty down with head flat on the floor and reassure
DO NOT raise their legs
Manage any other injury such as bleeding, wounds, burns and immobilise fractures
Maintain the casualty’s body warmth. Cover with blanket, coat or similar but DO NOT use any source of direct heat
Loosen any tight clothing
If the casualty is likely to require any surgery DO NOT give anything by mouth. Otherwise offer clear fluids e.g. small amounts of water frequently
Monitor the casualty
DO NOT leave them alone
Unconscious casualty -
Place casualty into the Recovery Position if they become unconscious and are breathing normally
Urgent medical aid. Call 000 for an ambulance

Snake Bite -
Snake bites are not common in Australia, but all should be treated as life threatening. Snakes force venom out under pressure through fangs in the upper jaw. The spread of snake venom depends on its absorption through the lymphatic system.
North Queensland has a smorgasbord of deadly snakes, fortunately death from a snake bite in the Greater Wangetti Region is extremely rare.
Please see the "Dangerous Fauna" page for a full list of life threatening snake species.
Caused by:
Snake fangs puncturing the skin and injecting toxin
Signs and symptoms:
Visible in an hour or more after the person has been bitten
In children, signs and symptoms may appear within minutes
Paired fang marks, but often only a single mark or a scratch mark may be present
Marks or scratches may bleed
Nausea, vomiting and diarrhoea
Headache, drowsiness, giddiness or faintness
Double or blurred vision, drooping eyelids
Voice changes, trouble speaking or swallowing
Pain or tightness in the throat, chest or abdomen
Breathing difficulties, respiratory weakness or arrest
What to do:
Follow DRSABCD. Urgent medical aid. Call 000 for an ambulance
Ensure the casualty does not move
Lay the casualty down, rest and reassure
If the bite is on a limb, apply a broad pressure bandage over the bite site as soon as possible
Then apply a further elasticised or firm bandage - start at fingers or toes and move up the limb as far as can be reached
Apply tightly but without stopping blood flow
Splint the limb including the joints on either side of the bite
Write down the time that the casualty was bitten and when the bandage was applied
If the casualty becomes unconscious and not breathing normally, commence CPR and Defibrillation
Wash the venom off the skin (it may aid in identification)
Cut the bitten area and try to suck the venom out of the wound
Use a tourniquet
Try to catch the snake

Spider Bite -
There are many species of spider that can, and sometimes will, bite a human but fortunately most are relatively harmless. In the Greater Wangetti Region we have two species that are potentially life threatening, and several others that can cause severe reactions.
Hadronyche anzses - North Queensland Funnel-Web (potentially life threatening)
Latrodectus hasseltii - RedBack Spider (potentially life threatening to at least a child)
Please see the "Dangerous Fauna" page for a full list of dangerous spiders.
Caused by:
Spider biting and puncturing the skin
Signs and symptoms:
General symptoms -
Sharp pain at bite site
Profuse sweating
Nausea, vomiting and abdominal pain
Additional symptoms of a Funnel-Web bite -
Copious secretion of saliva
Muscular twitching
Breathing difficulty
Small hairs stand on end
Numbness around mouth
Copious tears
Fast pulse
Markedly increased blood pressure
Confusion leading to unconsciousness
Additional symptoms of a RedBack Spider bite -
Intense local pain which increases and spreads
Small hairs stand on end
Patchy sweating
Muscle weakness or spasms
Possible signs and symptoms of other spider bites -
Burning sensation
What to do:
First aid for Funnel-Web bite -
Pressure bandage and immobilise
Call 000 for an ambulance
Lie the patient down and ask them to keep still. Reassure the patient
If bitten on a limb, apply an elasticised roller bandage (10–15 cm wide) over the bite site as soon as possible
Apply a further elasticised roller bandage (10–15 cm wide), starting just above the fingers or toes and moving upwards on the bitten limb as far as can be reached
Apply the bandage as firmly as possible to the limb. You should be unable to easily slide a finger between the bandage and the skin
Immobilise the bandaged limb using splints
Write down the time of the bite and when the bandage was applied. If possible, mark the location of the bite site (if known) on the skin with a pen, or photograph the site. Do not wash venom off the skin or clothes because it can assist identification
Stay with the patient until medical aid arrives
First aid for RedBack Spider bite -
Lay the casualty down, rest and reassure
Monitor the casualty constantly
Apply a cold compress/cold pack to lessen the pain (no longer than 20 minutes)
Seek medical aid promptly, if:
Person bitten is a young child, elderly, or infirmed
The casualty collapses
Pain is severe
First aid for all other spider bites -
Wash the injured site with soap and water
Apply a cold pack to the bitten or stung area for 15 minutes and reapply if pain continues
Seek medical attention if the patient develops severe symptoms

Spinal Injury -
Spinal injury is damage to any part of the spinal cord. Injury to the spine interferes with the transmission of messages to and from the brain which may result in paralysis in the legs or arms. If the injury is very high up the spine, breathing can also be affected.
Caused by:
Traffic-related accidents
Workplace related accidents
Sporting accidents
Falls or hit by a falling object
Significant blows to the head
Signs and symptoms:
Pain at or below site of injury
Tenderness or deformity
Absent or altered sensation below site of injury e.g. tingling
Loss of/or impaired movement below site of injury
Headache or dizziness
Breathing difficulties
Altered conscious state
What to do:
Conscious casualty -
Rest and reassure
Loosen tight clothing
Support and hold head and neck in a neutral position, place hands on either side of the casualty’s head to prevent twisting or bending the spine
Urgent medical aid. Call 000 for an ambulance
Unconscious casualty -
If the casualty is breathing but remains unconscious, place them into the recovery position whilst holding the head and spine in a neutral position to prevent twisting or bending during movement
Support head and neck in the neutral position place hands on either side of the casualty’s head to prevent twisting or bending the spine
Maintain a clear and open airway
Urgent medical aid. Call 000 for an ambulance

Sprains and Strains -
A sprain is a severe wrench or twist of the ligaments, such as an ankle, wrist or another joint, that causes pain and swelling. A strain is a force tending to pull or stretch muscles or tendons causing damage. It can be difficult to tell whether the injury is a fracture, dislocation, sprain or strain. If in doubt, always treat it as a fracture.
Caused by:
Falling and landing on arm
Fall on the side of the foot
Twisting a joint
Signs and symptoms:
Loss of power
Muscle spasm
What to do:
Conscious casualty -
Rest and reassure the casualty
Manage as a fracture if any doubt
Follow the RICE management plan -
REST the casualty and the injured part
ICEPACK (cold compress) for 15 minutes
COMPRESSION bandage after the icepack - apply firmly and extend well beyond the injury
ELEVATE the limb
Rules when using icepacks -
Wrap icepack in a damp cloth
Apply to the injured site for 15 minutes and then reapply every 2 hours for first 24 hours
Never apply ice directly to the skin or onto an open wound
If no ice is available use a cloth wrung out in cold water - this will need replacing every 10 minutes
Seek medical attention if in doubt or if no improvement after RICE
Unconscious casualty -
Follow DRSABCD. Call 000 and request an ambulance
Place patient in the recovery position, monitor breathing
Follow RICE management plan if possible

Stinging Tree Sting -
Next to severe physical trauma, this is quite likely the most painful trial anyone can experience. There are two species present in the Greater Wangetti region -
Dendrocnide moroides - Stinging Bush (most commonly encountered)
Dendrocnide photinophylla - Shining-Leaved Stinging tree
Please see the "Dangerous Flora" page for details on the various species of Stinging Tree.
Stinging Mechanism:
All species of stinging trees have a similar stinging mechanism. The severity of the sting depends on the surface area of skin making contact with the leaf, the number of hairs on that leaf and the nature of the poison contained in the hairs. D. moroides - the venom is contained within tubular silica hairs which function as self-injecting hypodermic syringes after the tip breaks off on contact with the skin. On a large D. moroides leaf 30 cm by 20 cm there can be as many as 15,000 hairs on both sides of a single leaf (predominantly on the upper surface). Note the little rounded tips on the hairs, which get knocked off on contact with the skin, and leave a beveled hypodermic needle-like end which easily punctures the skin. These spines are simply elaborate hairs - found on most plants
The Venom:
The composition of the venom is not understood but what is known is that it contains polypeptides which most likely stimulate the release of or mimic the actions of Acetylcholine, Histamines, 5-Hydroxtryptamine and Neuropeptides. The exact nature of the toxins probably varies with different species. The stinging hairs of most nettle species contain formic acid, serotonin and histamine; however recent studies of Urtica thunbergiana (China) implicate oxalic acid and tartaric acid, at least in that species. A polypeptide called moroidin has been isolated from D. moroides, and it is able to generate pain when minute doses are injected sub-dermally in human subjects - but it is still not as effective as the natural sting, indicating that a ‘cocktail of compounds are required', vis
- Acetylcholine has a parasympathetic stimulant effect causing vasodilation of blood vessels in the skin and sweating
- Histamine dilates the capillaries and increases capillary permeability leading to edema, erythema, and weals
- 5-Hydroxtryptamine (Serotonin) is a neurotransmitter involved in pain production and vasoconstriction
- Neuropeptides, short chain proteins, probably cause the long term pain, hyperalgesia and sensitivity to temperature
- Bradykinis, SRA, Leukotrienes and others
The surface of the silica hairs appear to be coated with a protein (which may be the polypeptide moroidin), which if the tubular hairs remain in the skin, causes long term hyperalgesia (an increased perception of pain and a lowered pain threshhold). This causes the untreated sting area to become very sensitive, especially in response to temperature changes, for many months after contact. These proteins (rather than the contents of the hairs) also appear to be largely responsible for the virulence of the pain
Effect of the Sting:
"If the leaves or the twigs make contact with the skin the hollow silica-tipped hairs penetrate and there is at first a slight itch, followed in a few seconds by a severe prickling effect which quickly becomes intense pain of a complex nature. The pain is described as composed of a background of tingling on which is superimposed an intermittant stabbing pain with sharp radiations passing in all directions. After a time, which varies in length, the stabs of sharper pain decrease in intensity and frequency but the diffuse background pain increases. The sharp tingling sensation is increased by touching, rubbing or cold. Referred pain in the thorax, chin, forehead, and in the opposite limb may also be experienced within 5 minutes of being stung. Pain also occurs frequently in the armpit or groin and this may persist for several days longer than the referred pain. The duller background pain may persist for several days and even after it finally disappears the affected portion may become extremely sensitive during cold weather or if rubbed or exposed to cold water. This effect may recur for 2 months or more after the original sting. Simultaneously with the production of pain the injured area quickly becomes covered with small red spots which join together and form a red swollen area surrounded by a flare zone. This effect appears within 5-10 minutes and persists for 8 hours or more. There is piloerection on the affected part generally intermittent and sometimes persisting for up to 30 hours. Sniffing and coughing have been reported in some cases."
Most effective treatment:
The acid and hairstrip technique -
Make up a solution of 3% hydrochloric acid in water
Hydrochloric acid (which is 30%) (commonly sold for cleaning cement and brickwork), produces very unpleasant choking fumes when concentrated, but is fine when diluted about 1 in 9 with water, which is what is used in this treatment. Hydrochloric acid is the acid produced by our stomachs (at about the same concentration that is used for the treatment). The diluted acid will not harm the skin or most materials (but keep it away from metal utensils, use glass or plastic), however it stings quite intensely if it gets in cuts, so if you have cut or scratched hands, use a pair of latex throwaway gloves to apply it
Applying the acid
Use strips of tissue or toilet paper, laid over the affected area, and the acid poured over that to saturate the paper (and patted gently into close contact with the skin). It will sting intensely, for about 5 - 10 minutes, and then the sting will subside. Add a little more of the acid after about 10 minutes, and leave the tissues in place for at least 30 minutes
It must be emphasized that the victim should NEVER scratch the stung area - it breaks off the embedded stinging hairs and makes them difficult to remove later
For a light sting, this treatment is usually enough. For a bad sting, it will be necessary to use depilatory strips to remove the stinging hairs.
Application of wax
The aim of applying the wax is to remove as many of the stinging hairs as possible. With this end in mind the wax must be applied as gently as possible so as not to break off the brittle silica hairs making them almost impossible to remove. This is why Waxeeze is preferred over the conventional strips. In warm weather the wax can be spread with a knife like honey. In cold climates the Waxeeze may need to be warmed so it flows more easily.
Spread the wax directly on a linen strip, handkerchief, T-shirt, or whatever is available. Spreading the wax onto the cloth first minimizes the chances of breaking the hairs as would happen if you spread the wax directly onto the skin
Gently pat the linen on the affected area. The application of the wax can cause considerable pain in the short term but once the treatment is finished the pain quickly goes away
Leave the linen strip in place for five minutes to allow the body heat to soften the wax more and allow it to flow around the hairs providing better grip
After five minutes the cloth is ripped off in a fast movement. If possible rip the cloth off against the direction of the body hairs. This will remove the stinging hairs as well as the victim's own body hairs. Repeat this procedure if the stinging hairs are not all gone. If all the new wax is used up linen strips can be reused
Immediately after the wax treatment Xylocaine or Lignocaine cream or similar can be applied to the affected area for pain relief
All pain can be expected to be gone by the next day although some itching has been reported. It is important that the victim does not scratch or rub. Antihistamines don't seem to reduce the severity of the pain but they might reduce the inflammatory responses. Don't use the lotions sometimes included in the Waxeeze package as it contains chloroform which will make this type of pain worse
Nair, or other depilatory strips will work also
Hot water (as hot as is comfortably bearable) will also provide some relief
Cunjevoi sap (ineffective)
Dettol (ineffective)
Urine (ineffective)
Cold water (will increase pain)
Alcohol (will increase pain)
While this technique works as a treatment, if there are symptoms such as asthma or other autonomic signs, consult a doctor

Stroke -
A stroke is a condition that occurs when an artery taking blood to the brain becomes blocked or bursts. As a result of a stroke, brain cells are damaged and functions controlled by that part of the brain are paralysed. Partial paralysis of the body and/or speech problems is common.
Recognise signs of a stroke:
FAST Stroke Assessment -
Facial weakness
Arm weakness
Speech difficulty
Time to act fast!!
Caused by:
Blocked arteries
Blood clots
Ruptured artery
Signs and symptoms:
Sudden decrease in level of consciousness
Weakness or paralysis on either one or both sides of the body
Feeling of numbness in face, arm or leg
Difficulty speaking or understanding
Dizziness, loss of balance, unexplained fall
Disturbed vision
What to do:
Conscious casualty -
Urgent medical aid. Call 000 for an ambulance
Rest and reassure the casualty
Place in a position of comfort and support the head and shoulders with pillows
Loosen tight clothing
Ensure airway is clear and open and wipe any secretions away from the mouth
Do not give anything to eat or drink, as swallowing may be impaired
Monitor casualty until medical aid arrives
Unconscious casualty -
Place into recovery position if unconscious and not breathing normally
Urgent medical aid. Call 000 for an ambulance